In this speedy and competitive digital era, mobile test automation has become one of the most unavoidable requirements for every software organization. It is next to impossible to manually test the application with all possible combinations of scattered devices with various platforms. To make it possible seamlessly, Test Engineering teams have to go with a mobile test automation approach. But now the question arises — Which mobile test automation framework is best fit for our requirements and why?

Prior to the selection of test automation framework — we need to look at the following parameters:

  • Our testing app is on…

As 2020 is already closed, it is time to talk about the predictions of Test Manual/Automation for current year 2021. Right from the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 put tremendous pressure on software development companies to adapt to new ways of working. Many of the Development/Testing organizations easily adapted, others struggled to adapt and the rest of them are still struggling. As we look forward to 2021, recurring impact would still be there but we can not stop to adapt to new ways and move on. Due to this remote work culture, testing teams started using cloud services for their script…


The StaleElementReference Exception is one of the most fascinating exceptions which you would have tackled while running your selenium tests. I have seen people mixing its concepts with NoSuchElementException.

Per Selenium Webdriver documentation, the reference to an element is now “stale” — the element no longer appears on the DOM of the page. In layman words, the element that is located using the findElement or findElements method becomes inaccessible when you attempt to perform any actions on it.

Communication Protocol:

As a step to comply W3C standards, WebDriver leverages JSON as a medium of communication between client libraries (Java, C#, Python and…

The last stage of the Shadow DOM battle is yet to win — so be ready to handle it natively. After going through the previous chapters {chpater#1 Anatomy of Shadow DOM and chpater#2 W3C Webdriver support for Shadow DOM} of this series, now we have strong fundamentals about Shadow DOM. So let’s win the last stage and conquer the Shadow DOM by using few open-source frameworks.

For Shadow DOM, Which frameworks we need to choose if we are starting automation from scratch?

Before taking a step ahead, let’s have a glimpse of the internal workings of W3C Webdriver with Shadow DOM.

Peek at Internal workings of W3C Webdriver with Shadow DOM
V3.8 onwards, W3C WebDriver Protocol replaces the older JSON Wire protocol. So it’s very clear that you no longer need to encode/decode the API requests using the W3C Webdriver protocol, and the automated scripts can directly communicate with the web browser drivers.

Since the birth of Selenium Webdriver {now W3C Webdriver}, the first time a global survey has been conducted across the W3C WebDriver community and all of the participants have shared their key challenges faced during their automation. Let’s look at the responses of one of the most important challenges asked “What one thing would you improve about W3C Webdriver?

Stale Element

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